美利堅合眾國作為最民主的發達國家之一,已經成為重要的全球同性戀運動的中心。 同性戀者積極參與政治和社會過程始于20世紀60-70年,當時叛亂和尋找替代傳統價值觀現象已經變得普遍。 現在,同性戀群絕對離不開現代美國的生活方式。
Case For Open Homosexuality In United States Military
美國同性戀-Homosexuality in the USA
The phenomenon of homosexuality is known almost from the earliest stages of human development.Depending on the place and time, relations between people of the same sex were considered as a norm or mental disorder, as a congenital disease, as immoral, or even as a crime worthy of the highest degree of punishment.But in the 20 century, the problem of homosexuality became very publicized and much discussed in the society.
United States of America as one of the most democratically developed states, in turn, have become an important global center of homosexual movement. Active involvement of homosexuals in the political and social processes began in 60-70 years of XXth century, when the rebellion and the search for alternatives to traditional values have become common.Now the gay community is absolutely inseparable from the modern American way of life.
Very much in "fashion" in the modern world is to talk about tolerance and equality of all people on Earth, and gay rights are one of the main subjects of public debate in the new millennium. Therefore, to show others their personal freedom from bias and stereotypes, it is necessary to show public approval of homosexuality.Such trend in changing social attitudes can be expressed like this: new times require new approaches.From this point of view, policies on sexual minorities in the U.S. is an important part in the political life of the society, and even of election campaigning in the election platforms of parties. It is understandable, that homosexuals, like other minorities, support the Democratic Party. That is why democrats, as well as other supporters of homosexuality, talk about the importance of recognition of rights and freedom of minorities on the basis of equality of all US citizens.
The Declaration of Independence as well as the due process clause of the fourteenth amendment of the United States Constitution states individuals have the right to life, liberty , and the pursuit of happiness; therefore, the homosexual population should be permitted to serve their country in a military capacity without restrictions of harassment if they so desire.
That is, the question of the rights and freedoms of homosexuals is important and widely debated in the U.S. society, and even in political life.For example, Bill Clinton has once included in his election program item that allowed gays to serve in the army, known as the rule "Don't ask, don't tell" (which was approved in 1993).This law was one of the most controversial and widely discussed in U.S. public life.Â Also, later another U.S. president Barack Obama during the election campaign announced his plans to pass a law prohibiting discrimination against homosexuals and granting equal rights to gay couples to adopt children.
But not so long ago it was announced that Obama and Congress were going to cancel the principle of "Don't ask, don't tell", that would not allow homosexuals to serve in the U.S. Army absolutely freely.
世界上同性戀者在軍隊服役的立法-Legislation in the world on homosexuals serving in the army
The question of service of homosexuals in the military was not discussed before 1970, probably because no one thought about the ability of homo-and bisexual men perform their duty, but the increasing homophobic sentiments in the countries of the Western world drew attention of the military authorities and the governments of many countries to this issue.
Thus, in 1982 - 1984's military attaches of embassies of non-Communist countries in 1957 in Washington participated in the survey on the participation of homosexuals in the military service of their countries and the policies towards homosexuals:
- 37% attache reported that their military policy excluded the service of homosexuals in the military;
- 14% reported that homo-and bisexuals serving in the armed forces of their countries on an equal rights with heterosexuals;
- 49% reported that the military in their countries had never thought about this question and therefore had no policy towards homosexuals.
That is, the analysis showed that the foundation of military policy towards sexual minorities depend on culture conditions of individual countries.
World practice say that nowadays about 91 countries (mostly in Asia) prohibits homosexuality, and in 8 of them for a death penalty (especially in Iraq), and in another 9 for life imprisonment.In the armies of these countries there is no question about the service of representatives of sexual minorities.Most emphatically homosexuality is denied in Islamic countries, where homosexuals are prosecuted by law.The ban on homosexuals is present in the military in Russia, China, Greece, Armenia, Belarus.
In 1999, the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg decided that the ban on military service for homosexuals violates human rights.As a result, most European countries allow them to serve in the army, but a heterosexual harassment should be severely punished.Â Since 2000 homosexuals were given the right to serve in the army in UK, since 2009 - in Argentina, Uruguay, the Philippines.
From July 2009 homosexuality stoped to be a criminal offense in India.Loyal attitude towards sexual minorities is also in the IDF - Israel Defense Forces: since 1993, this country canceled unequal treatment to them in the army, and in 1998 abolished all distinctions based on sexual orientation.
美國軍隊的同性戀-Homosexuality in United States Military
The practice of military service of people of different sexual orientation, and caused by this practice psychological, social and legal problems, are familiar to all armies in the world. Governments of western countries, to avoid accusations of discrimination, are making arrangements for access to military service for all who are willing and suitable to it.Â But in most of other countries governments restrict or prohibit this, especially authoritarian regimes, and even practice the prohibition of homosexuality in principle.
In fact cases of homosexual contacts in the armies are known since antiquity. In the first half of the twentieth century, homosexuality was banned in fascist Italy and Germany, there could be no question about homosexuals in the military. Tolerant attitude towards homosexuals in the world, including the loyal attitude of public opinion, arose only after the World War II, during which self-consciousness of homosexuals in the U.S. Army took shape as a community.Since that period and until now the U.S. is in the vanguard of political and social movements for citizens rights, including in the army.
In 1993 the U.S. government has adopted "Do not Ask, Do not Tell policy with the filing of the Democratic Party, under the pressure of public opinion and human rights organizations, as a compromise between opponents of the admission of homosexuals in the U.S. armed forces and supporters of their admission (with condition of full openness).Â The essence of law is that military personnel are not allowed to talk about their sexuality and express their views on appropriate occasions, and the officers were not allowed to ask about the sexual orientation of subordinates, only in cases of investigation of incidents initiated by an anonymous or a named source. In the case of disclosure of homosexual orientation, a soldier is subject to immediate dismissal, since he, as it is stated in the law, "threatens the high standards of morality and discipline, as well as undermining team spirit."Â
In this situation, according to some data, in 1997 to 2009 from the Army were fired 10,900 gays and lesbians. (NYT Poll)
But recently the U.S. Court demanded to change the rules of the service of gays in the military: it was decided not to dismiss representatives of sexual minorities from the army, who openly declared their orientation.According to the laws in force in the U.S. for the past 17 years, gays have the right to serve in the army if they do not give publicity to their orientation. (Bronstad 2010)
That is why the U.S. District Judge Virginia Phillips in the last month recognized the principle of "do not ask - do not tell" as unconstitutional. This means that all legal proceedings against gay soldiers, who openly declared their orientation, should be stopped, and all soldiers, dismissed for this reason from the ranks of the army, must be restored.
The active protection of gay rights from the ruling party can be explained due to traditional Democratic sympathies to this part of the electorate. The Democratic Party, headed by President Obama, has strong support from activists, bringing together representatives of sexual minorities.
By 2010, it became clear that the law gives a lot of discomfort to soldiers who are forced to hide their orientation from the social environment, and in February 2010 the Senate initiated to repeal the law. In March 2010 was repealed the right to initiate an investigation due to anonymous information about the orientation of the soldier. And in the end of 2010 was expected the complete abolition of the "do not ask, do not tell" policy, which advocated the President Barack Obama. (Bronstad 2010)
On September 21, the U.S. Senate rejected a proposal to revise the current approach to homosexuals serving in the army, known as "Do not ask - do not tell." To start the debate the U.S. Senate lacked only four votes: the bill was supported by 56 senators, but it was necessary to get 60 votes, and 43 senators said "no."
Decision of the Senate is a direct attack on Barack Obama, who spoke of the need to revise this discriminatory, in his view, law.Representatives of the military department spoke about it more carefully, and Pentagon chief Robert Gates has ordered an independent study of the problem. But having refined the bill, Democrats will have an opportunity to again submit it to the Senate, as the House of Representatives earlier expressed support for the abolition of "Don't ask, don't tell".
Meanwhile, recently commander of the Marine Corps Gen. James Conway said the soldiers of U.S. Marine Corps units are dissatisfied with the possible abolition of the law "Don't ask, don't tell" about the service of homosexuals in the armed forces. Against the abolition of the law also said a number of prominent Republicans, including former U.S. presidential candidate John McCain.#p#分頁標題#e#
As for supporters of the ban for gays to serve in the U.S. armed forces, they believe that the representatives of sexual minorities will lower morale and combat readiness of the army.
The question of the rights and freedoms of homosexuals is important and widely debated in the U.S. society, and particularly in the US military. From 1993 in this country act the policy "Don't ask, don't tell", that means soldiers are not allowed to talk about their sexuality. That is, on the background of a general tolerance of society to homosexuality, the U.S. Army continues to maintain its policy of banning same-sex relationships in their ranks.However, this does not prevent gay to sign contracts with the armed forces and hide their true sexual preferences, to serve in various garrisons throughout the world.