在完成英文Thesis之前，需要先做一個英文的Research Proposal。很多人對如何開始做一個Proposal沒有概念，那么英語的Proposal里面到底包含什么內容？一般需要多少字？應該怎么開始寫？Proposal是Thesis前的一個前期預備工作，是對要做的Thesis Research的問題和流程的概括性描述，提供對之后的研究方法的邏輯概述，說明這個所研究項目的重要性。
Ipractically assess if CSR disclosure and investment of Corporate Social Responsibly (CSR)enables/facilitates cooperation among partners in business collaborations.This is because business collaborations are vital in sustaining an organization’s competitive advantage even if almost half the projects fail. The main reason as to why the project fail is lack of partners’ cooperation in business collaborations referred to as relational risk. Results show that CSR disclosure results into an unlimitedCSR investment but does not support the general level of cooperation. Besides this, CSR disclosure regulates the relationship between CSR investment and cooperation. In a situation where both managers invest in CSR and under a disclosed CSR, then the cooperation rate is higher. Additionally, organizational managers who invest in CSR are sensitive to CSR disclosure evidence than those mangers who fail to invest in CSR. The CSR investor managers are as well more cooperative whenever they get the indication that their partners also invested in CSR. While on the other hand, managers who fail to invest in CSR fail also to attend to CSR disclosure information and that they are similarly cooperative when the partner with CSR investors or non-CSR investors. In summary, under a non-disclosed CSR, investor managershave a higher cooperation likelihood that the mangers who fail to invest in CSR. Despite the fact that CSR is well known, we only know little as to why managers choose to invest in CSR or rather disclose CSR information. This dissertation there implies to academic scholars and practitioners CSR information by signifying the potential CSR disclosure and investment benefits while vindicating the relational risk amongst business collaborations.
1.1 Background Information
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is defined as the organization’s incorporation of societal and environmental concerns done through its business practices and resource contributions (Dahlsrud, 2008, p.2). Over the years, CSR investment and disclosure has experienced a rapid growth and that CSR disclosure investment has become increasingly popular. A research done by Pricewaterhouse on 68 countries covering 1,344 CEO’s revealed that 74% of the CEO’s attributed that CSR measuring and reporting adds up to organizational long-term success (PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2014, p.7).
CSR investment and disclosure leads to information asymmetry reduction in labor and capital markets as well as lowering the cost of capital, reducing negative stock price shocks, improving future performance, and analyst forecast precision Dhaliwal et. al, 2012 pg 19). Its investment is reflective of the manager’s attributes in regard to fiscal policy. Additionally, it has become evident that employee effort and motivation is improved when organization venture and invest in disclosure CSR (Koppel & Regner, 2014 p.112). Research findings have as well suggested that organizationalmanagers can invest in disclosure CSR and CSR in regard to investors’ preferences and for them to attract and retain employees (Martin & Moses 2016 p.326).
Alongside CSR investment and disclosure rapid growth, there also lies a great deal of skepticism underlying the honesty of CSR investment and its credibility among the popular press, customers, investors, and academic researchers. Many of these stakeholders have a strong belief that organizations are getting huge profits from dishonest claims of CSR’s terms such as “CSR washing” and “green washing” are becoming famous (Pope & Waeraas, 2016 p.222).Also, domestic and international research findings have consistently disclosed that end user consumers have a strong belief that disclosure CSR investment is done superficially as the basis for marketing campaigning hence making it a concern on how the stakeholders view CSR investment disclosure (Kanter, 2009 p.343).
1.2 Scope of the Research
This research builds on the emerging trends of CSR literature in accounting; this will be achieved by examining the relationship between CSR investment, disclosure and cooperation in organizational collaborations (Katz, 2008 p.228). Since the start of the 20th century, organizations have increasingly got engaged in business collaborations to access complementary competencies thatto some extent may be difficult, time consuming, and may be too difficult to develop. Organizational collaborations can as well take different forms which can range from joint research/development, outsourcing, innovation/technology sharing, and joint marketing (Anderson & Dekker, 2014 p.243).
According to a research done by business performance innovation network 2014, 85% of the respondents have a belief that organizational collaborations are crucial for business growth (Business Performance Innovation Network, 2014 p.245). Even though, despite the business popularity collaborations only half of the organizations that gets themselves into failure (Lunnan & Haugland, p.478).This high rate of business collaboration failure is attributed by the lack of cooperation referred to as relational risk which is a vital determining factor of cooperation in organizational culture and business collaborations (Pothukuchi et al. 2002 p.323). Organizational culture, values and norms have also been compromising the firm’s informal control system. It is therefore by this that researchers have conducted experimental accounting surveys which have confirmed that informal controls can pose a significant interactive effect on intrafirm collaborations and work groups (Kelly & Presslee, 2017 p.239).
1.3 Hypothesis of the Research
In this research, I choose to practically examine the organizational collaboration setting using a strategic interaction task where two parties choose simultaneously whether to cooperate in the collaboration or not to collaborate (Martin & Moser, 2012 p.413). This will also involve a one-time modified stag hound duty that operationalizes the involved risk in regard to cooperation business collaborations. In this case, earnings are such that there are risks in cooperation but potential in wealth increase while on the other hand non-cooperation is riskless. Recent calls on accounting literature to assess CSR disclosure investment is answered by the use of strategic interaction task which uses practical methodologies (Huang & Wtson, 2015 p.221). Additionally, the use of practical economics methodology answers the concerns for the use of game theoretic methodologiesdirectly and thus encouraging cooperation and facilitating mitigation relational risks in business collaborations (Huang & Wtson, 2015 pg 28).
Like the previous practical surveys, I regard CSR disclosure investment as a charitable offer where participants decide whether to give part of their revenues from stag hunt task to charity (Brekke, 2011pg 19). I as well assess the impact of CSR disclosure investment by manipulating disclosure to two points among the participants, disclosure, and non-disclosure treatment where either participant is not aware whether or not did their partner donate to charity (Brekke, 2011pg 19). Previous researches also show that individuals invest in CSR disclosure consider other-regarding whose preference results into unquestionable cooperation. Besides this, it in not confirmed if at all a presumably other-regarding organizational manager who does not venture into CSR has the chance of cooperating in business collaborations as those who invest do (Brekke & Nyborg, 2008 pg 40). This is true because cooperation in any business collaboration is driven by the manager’s preference for cooperation as well as their beliefs about their partner’s preference for the same course of cooperation. I then hypothesizethat CSR disclosure investment is a positive indicator of the manager’s preference for cooperation and a facilitator for general business cooperation in collaborations (Brekke, 2011pg 19).
Research results further suggest that organizational managers are more likely to venture and invest in CSR under circumstances where CSR is disclosed unlike when it is not disclosed. However, it not evident that cooperation is higher when CSR is under a disclosure than when it is not. Practical research findings provide evidence that CSR disclosure balances the connection between CSR investment and business collaboration cooperation. In a disclosed CSR, cooperation is highest in collaboration when all the involved managers invest in CSR and poorest when both managers fail to invest in CSR (Kim et al. 2019 pg 77). Additionally, CSR investors are sensitive to CSR disclosure than the non-CSR disclosures. Also, CSR investors are found to be very cooperative when they partner with CSR investors. To conclude, in a non-disclosed CSR, investor managers are not any cooperative than the CSR investor managers thus CSR disclosure is a credible sign of a manager’s propensity to cooperate in business collaborations among other CSR investors (Kelly & Presslee, 2017 pg 55).
This research is therefore meant to address the concerns for additional accounting research on CSR investment and disclosure as well contribute to the accounting research in different other means. It will major on the existing accounting research that examines the use of formal and informal control techniques to campaign for intra-firm and inter-firm business collaboration cooperation (Kelly & Presslee pg 16). Further, the research will add information to accounting research determining whether CSR investment and disclosure fall under informative or managerial sector (Hoi et al. 2013 pg 34).This research will therefore be among that few that have examined the link between CSR disclosure, CSR investment, and business collaboration cooperation.
This research incorporates the diverse sources of available literature on CSR, organizational collaborations, and managerial controls meant to create hypotheses in regard to the links among CSR investment, disclosure, and business cooperation. In this chapter, I intend to analyze the relevant research findings from the previous surveys. Here, I will define CSR, elaborate on the findings determining the capital and labor markets. Additionally, I will analyze the available literature on business collaborations and discuss the relevant literature on managerial controls in regard to organizational culture and informal control that facilitates both intra-firm and inter-firm business cooperation.
Title: Relationship between loyalty card and customer loyalty
---by the case of UK TESCO supermarket
A brief explanation of the topic
The study of customer loyalty, particularly customer loyalty research on English retail supermarkets has unusual significance. Customer loyalty refers to rebuying behaviors when customers prefer to some service or products. High customer loyalty is the greatest wealth of retailing enterprises (Doncy and Cannon, 1997). A certain consulting company’s commercial survey shows that when customer retailing rate increases 5%, retailing enterprises’ profits will increase 25% to 80% (Joan, Anderson, Jolly and Ann, 2007). Therefore, the research on customer loyalty is a required necessary for modern retail enterprises. If retail enterprises improve their customer loyalty, they may satisfy customers’ growing personalized demand, adapt to the development of contemporary retail industry, and thus improve the measures to keep customers.
The main purpose of this dissertation is to research on loyalty cards comprehensively and systematically, analyze the key elements of Loyalty card and use it as the basis for English supermarkets to cultivate customer loyalty. And the purpose of this research is to identify the determinants of customer loyalty in English supermarkets. Apart from assessing the extent of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the supermarket, primary research is carried out to test the proposed model of customer loyalty. This study seeks to study:
(1). whether loyalty cards have a positive impact on customer loyalty for English supermarkets.研究英國超市中忠誠卡是否對顧客忠誠有正相關影響
(2). whether customer satisfaction has a significant impact on customer loyalty in English supermarket. 研究英國超市中顧客滿意是否對顧客忠誠有顯著影響。
因為在全文中我將把顧客忠誠這個因素當作自變量independent variable,而把忠誠卡和顧客滿意這兩個要素當作因變量dependent variables，因此討論忠誠卡與顧客忠誠之間的關系以及顧客滿意與顧客忠誠之間的關系。提出兩個假設，假設一：忠誠卡對顧客忠誠之間有正相關影響；假設二：顧客滿意對顧客忠誠有顯著影響。
An outline of the method or methods you plan to use to gather relevant data and a justification for its, or their, use;
There are too many literatures on customer loyalty theoretical research or practical research, in this paper the author uses generally standardized deduction theory and empirical research quantitative analysis. These methods will be based on secondary research and questionnaire survey and interview. The source of secondary research will be the research published in various journals and management publications (Bainbridge, 2001). In order to achieve the above research objectives, the survey research is used as the primary data collection method. Survey research is the collection of data through formally addressing questions to a large number of people in the target population and taking a systematic record of their responses (Bainbridge, 2001). Two survey research methods, namely a self-administered questionnaire and face-to-face interview are employed respectively to gather primary research data from the consumers and the sellers.
Theory research is the basis of empirical research. Standard analysis’s performance is based on some form of moral values or value judgment, to solve “what should be” which is more dependent on the interpretation of the logical way of thinking (Creswell, 1994). In this dissertation the author firstly uses standardized research to outline the theory in this study.
Research of the relationship impact among consumer behavior, customer loyalty, customer satisfaction will be based on empirical research; the author mainly analyzes the TESCO supermarket as the case. Research will focus mainly through survey to get data.
1) Secondary research
A large of literature has been read, and some news from internet has been used. Some data has been collected from others reports.
2) Primary research
Empirical research is the main method in this paper, and some data has been collected from questionnaire, some analysis has been made in order to make a conclusion.
Population of the study
In this research, the author chooses 150 people at random for questionnaire, and asks them some questions on supermarket customers’ purchase, such as the factors for them to consider when they want to buy something, among which is the most important fact, etc.
The sample for this research was defined as the residents of London over 18 years of age. Because the mainly loyalty program was require the participant must be 18 years old above.
When the author gets those data, the author screens useful information and effective information and analyzes them, then reach the conclusions. In this research street interview is adopted to collect both of qualitative and quantitative data. The research is to investigate the relationship between loyalty card and customer loyalty. This objective requires a deep comprehension of the attitude and behaviors for costumer towards loyalty cards.
A description as to how you will actually be able to apply those method(s);
Firstly, the author will read a lot of literatures about marketing, such as the theories on customer loyalty, and loyalty cards, so the author can use library method to do the theoretical outline of this dissertation.
Secondly, the author can use questionnaire survey to do the research, because the author stays in UK, and has the opportunity to collect data. The author designs questionnaire for customers of TESCO supermarket, it includes customers’ gender and age, which is used for the basic statistical sample description; The second part is on the investigation of latent Variables, which are factors of loyalty cards impacting TESCO supermarket’s customer loyalty and the dependent variables, which means TESCO supermarket’s customer loyalty degree. The questionnaire includes a dependent variable and six latent variables, totally 27 indicators. In the design for measuring one dependent variable and six latent variables’ 27 indicators, the author refers to the previous Scholars’ samples, 意思是作者參考了以前學者的樣本but optimizes the design.
A timetable of the various stages of your research;
To decide a topic January, 2010
Review of literature and complete a research proposal February, 2010
Collect secondary data and start to write introduction March, 2010
Write up literature review and prepare the interviews April, 2010
Literature review and data analysis May, 2010
Write up results and conclusion June, 2010
First draft of project report completed July, 2010
Final writing of project report August, 2010
A brief overview of some of the key literature relevant to your topic
In English, the word “loyalty” is derived from French, refers to people's evaluation on systems, rules and habits compliance (Andrew, Leigh, Susan, Nikolao, Cretu and Roderick, 2003); also derived from Latin, emphasizes that the extension and development of human beings’ legitimacy activities (Anne, 2003). In the Chinese language, it refers to the dedication and performance of people the people or groups, and refers to faithful reliability, focuses on the sustainability of specific acts.
Customer loyalty is the important theory in the marketing area, especially in the mid-1990s of the 20th century when marketing theory develops much (Brodie, 2007), the research on customer loyalty becomes another hot point after customer satisfaction (Arch and Martin, 2007). A lot of scholars think there are four functions of customer loyalty through theoretical and empirical researches. First it may increase revenues, second, it can reduce marketing costs, and third, it can win new customers, Forth, it can help to obtain market information (Arch and Martin, 2007).
Loyalty card scheme are one of the CRM’s most popular strategies which have attracted much interest from various companies (Chiara, 2003). Customer loyalty programs have already permeated people’s life such as railways, petrol station, restaurants, and supermarket (Berry, 2005). Loyalty cards become part of people’s life and the frequency of use loyalty cards in payment are gradually increased. There are two main major role of loyalty cards program one of them is that retailers can obtain large amounts of valuable information through the loyalty club cards. The second one is that customers can benefit from joining in several ways (Doncy and Cannon, 1997).
Philippe. Kotler (2000) thinks that customer satisfaction means the happy feeling or disappointed state when a person compares the perceived effect (or results) with his or her expectations.
William Neal (1999) thinks when the actual consumption effect of goods reaches consumers’ expected results, which has led satisfaction; otherwise, it will lead to customers’ dissatisfaction.
Philip Kotler and William Neal’s definitions of customer satisfaction are all concluded from the comparative analysis of expectations and feelings. In fact, customer satisfaction is consumers’ satisfied state in the entire process of enterprises providing products and services. This state is the affirmative and positive psychological experience after customers’ constant comparison and freedom of choice. That is to say customer satisfaction is limited to customers’ psychological level tendencies.
Andrew S., Leigh S., Susan H. and Nikolaos E., Cretu T. and Roderick J., 2003, ‘Retail loyalty schemes: results from a consumer diary study’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 10, Issue 2, March, Pp. 109-119
Anne W. Mägi, 2003, ‘Share of wallet in retailing: the effects of customer satisfaction, loyalty cards and shopper characteristics’, Journal of Retailing, Volume 79, Issue 2, pp. 97-106
Bainbridge, W. S., 2001. Survey research：A computer- assistant introduction. Belmont, CA：Wadsworth.
Berry, 2005, ‘The old pillars of new retailing’, Harvard Business Review, vol 1. pp. 44-45
Brodie, 2007, ‘The influence of brand image and company reputation where manufacturers market to small firms: A customer value perspective’, Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 36, pp. 230-240
Arch G. Woodside and Martin G. Walser, 2007, ‘Building strong brands in retailing’, Journal of Business Research, Volume 60, pp. 1-10
Doncy P .M., CannonJ .P. 1997, ‘An examination of the nature of trust in buyer seller relationships’, Journal of Marketing, vol 61 (8), pp. 35-51
Chiara Mauri, 2003, ‘Card loyalty. A new emerging issue in grocery retailing’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 10, pp. 13-25
Creswell, J. W. 1994, Research design: Qualitative & quantitative approaches. http://www.lexwebdesigners.com Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Joan L. Anderson, Laura D. Jolly and Ann E. Fairhurst, 2007, ‘Customer relationship management in retailing: A content analysis of retail trade journals’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 14, pp. 394-399
Philippe. Kotler, 2000, Marketing Management, McGraw-Hill
William D.Neal, 1999, ‘Satisfaction is nice, but value drives loyalty’, Marketing Research，(6)