Ludwig Wittgenstein is recognized as one of the 20 greatest philosophers in the world. His ideas are powerful and original. At different times in his life, he formed two highly original systems of thought, each of which had a great impact on modern philosophy, while the second system was critical and refuted the first -- an evolution unique in the history of philosophy. This suggests that he has a unique philosophical mind, and many would prefer to call him a genius. Wittgenstein's two philosophical works and ideas in the early and late period had important influence on the development of analytical philosophy. His early philosophy influenced the logical atomic theory and logical positivism which were popular in the European continent. The following is a brief analysis of his philosophy and its profound impact on modern philosophy.
路德維希·維特根斯坦被認為是世界上20位最偉大的哲學家之一。 他的想法是強大和原創的。在他生命的不同時期，他形成了兩個高度原創的思想體系，每個體系都對現代哲學產生了巨大的影響，而第二個體系則是批判性的，并且駁斥了第一個體系 - 這是哲學史上獨一無二的演變。這表明他有一種獨特的哲學思想，許多人更愿意稱他為天才。維特根斯坦在早期和晚期的兩種哲學著作和思想對分析哲學的發展產生了重要影響。他早期的哲學影響了歐洲大陸流行的邏輯原子理論和邏輯實證主義。以下是對他的哲學及其對現代哲學的深刻影響的簡要分析。
The turn of the 20th century was a crisis period of western theoretical science. Aristotle once divided theoretical science into physics, mathematics and philosophy. However, all three disciplines experienced crises at the turn of the century. With the new discoveries of relativity and quantum physics, the physics crisis was overcome. The roots of the mathematical crisis lie in the logicism, which was overcome and thus got rid of the crisis. Philosophy faces a crisis more acute and longer than physics or mathematics. Philosophy is faced not only with the failure of some basic concepts, principles and methods, but with the danger of losing its own research object.
Traditional western philosophy has three major themes: god, matter and soul. Through the baptism of the enlightenment, god's domain in the field of philosophy is getting smaller and smaller. The revolutionary advances in natural science in the 19th century made the study of nature in traditional philosophy redundant and cumbersome. Scientists have long dismissed Hegel's natural philosophy. The positivist trend initiated by comte, especially the phenomenalism initiated by maher in the field of physics, expelled the speculation of natural philosophy from empirical science. Matter is no longer the subject of modern western philosophy. Philosophy is in danger of losing "god" and "matter". After feng te initiated experimental psychology at the beginning of this century, the study of human mental phenomena gradually separated from philosophy, and psychology became an empirical science. More seriously, the "psychologism", which replaced philosophical epistemology with psychology, has invaded the last domain of traditional philosophy.#p#分頁標題#e#
While the challenge of positivism and psychologism threatens the right of philosophy to live, some philosophers see the way out of philosophy from the success of mathematical logic. At the turn of the century, frege, piano, Russell, whitehead and others established a logic calculus system, and for the first time reduced the basis of mathematics to logic, proving the analytical nature of mathematical propositions and the logic of the system of mathematical axioms. What is the basis of logic? The philosopher opens up a new field of philosophy by discussing logic, which is the meaning of language. We know that logic is embodied by language, and the meaning of language is the corresponding field that complements logic rules. More importantly, the meaning of language lies between fact, thought and language, neither belonging to the physical world nor to the individual psychological world. Such, in philosophy crisis situation, facing the challenge of psychological, inspired by the progress in mathematical logic and the enlightenment, at the beginning of this decade, as philosophers began to discusses the foundation of mathematical logic and language meaning, develop a new philosophy and the philosophy of object, realized the "linguistic turn" of modern philosophy.
The linguistic turn of philosophy refers to the elevation of a kind of rational knowledge of language itself to the status of basic philosophical problems. In the trend of scientism, the first language to turn to the philosophy of logical analysis, represented mainly by frege and Russell. Wittgenstein is regarded as the first person to realize the decisive change of "linguistic turn".
Wittgenstein's early thoughts are embodied in his masterpiece logical philosophy. This is a classic book in the history of philosophy. It is very creative and profound, but it is less than 80 pages long. The book is original, composed of aphorisms and aphorisms. The central thesis of the book is linguistic image theory.
Wittgenstein described two symmetrical systems in logic philosophy, one ontological system and the other logic system of proposition. Both of them have the same logic structure, and the two systems can be corresponded one by one with the relationship of "image". This is his theory of language image.
The basic point of Wittgenstein's image theory is that a proposition is an image of fact, and a proposition is an image. A proposition can only be an image of a situation if it has a certain logical structure. Images also have structure. Each part of the image is configured in a certain way to represent the combination of things, which is the structure of the image. Any image must have something in common with reality in order to depict reality. The common point is the logical form of the image and the actual configuration. Image theory indicates how propositions can express facts, that is, how language can describe the world. The core point is that language and the world are logically homogeneous. The name corresponds to the object, the basic proposition to the atomic fact, the language as the sum of propositions to the world as the sum of facts. Here, language and the world have a common logic structure, with some mysterious color, the reason is that the logic structure can not be described, but only show itself.#p#分頁標題#e#
Wittgenstein expressed the idea of the boundary between language and the world in logic philosophy. Wittgenstein, influenced by Kant and Schopenhauer's subjectivity philosophy, understood Kant's knowledge subject and Schopenhauer's will subject as language subject. The self as the subject of language is the boundary between language and the world. The so-called boundary of the world refers to the logical space. Because the logical space is the frame structure specified by the whole of proposition, and the whole language of proposition, the subject of language is self, therefore, the logical space is defined by self. The logical space is the region of all possible facts, and the reality is the sum total of all actual facts. The ego limits the limits of the world by defining the application scope of the logical space. Wittgenstein said accordingly: "I am my world."
Wittgenstein proposed mysticism and ineffable thoughts in his logical philosophy. The last chapter of the logical philosophy contains only this line: "we must remain silent about the unspeakable." So what does Wittgenstein think is ineffable? First, the logical form. To draw a picture of a state of affairs, a proposition must share a logical form with a state of affairs, which itself is not a picture of a state of affairs. Second, traditional metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics, etc. He argues that neither of them is empirical science, nor does he copy the world of painting. Third, something mysterious. Wittgenstein once argued that all is necessary in the realm of mystery, and that language can only speak by accident. The central theme of the philosophy of logic is the propositional description of states of affairs, and therefore it is inadmissible not to describe those which do not portray states of affairs. The line of fact is the line of speech, and what lies beyond the line of fact is the line of speech.
Wittgenstein's logical philosophy answered the questions put forward by The Times to philosophy and gave birth to a new philosophy view and the language view and meaning view necessary for such philosophy practice. On the basis of this, the essential problems of logic at that time and the universal validity of natural science theory are analyzed and explained. However, it also has profound contradictions: unspeakable precisely, such logical positivism encountered various difficulties in the verification of meaning and the application of theory, which led to the transformation of later Wittgenstein's philosophy.