Communication is a dynamic process in which a transmitter transmits information receiver via a channel , in order to produce some effect on the receptor. Effects of transmitter on the receiver are often persuasive in nature because when we communicate the information will be understood as send us.
Any information directed intentionally gets the message. This implies the existence of a recipient or acceptor and not just a receiver or collector . Also involved there is a issue, encoder or decoder court.
Communication involves reversal of messages within the relationship which unites two entities, even if the messages are of the same order. Man can communicate with animals, with nature, but the most developed, evolved and of course analyzed is communication within groups of people. This implies the existence of natural or cultural structures and techniques that require organization and regulatory guidelines .
Communication implies the existence of individual goals linked to other targets individuals or groups and subgroups. In a subgroup can be shaped by objectives, skills, availability and situations that cause structure.
Communication within a group involves specific techniques and exercises by: group organization, group members complete interaction , reporting real and creativity of its members.
Creativity is regarded as a property of the human psychic system. It is a particular dimension of personality dimension interacting many factors such as mental ( intellectual, affective, motivational, volitional, skills, attitudes), the nature of social (socio - cultural, educational) and biological. This interaction gives deep complex phenomenon that is fully justified that domain experts could not reach a universally accepted definition. Most definitions of creativity subsumed visions characterized by addressing the concept of aptitude or ability to produce something new, the process to produce new or problem solving. Therefore, the literature is taken as a reference framework or personality variables or creative process or product of the act of creation itself.#p#分頁標題#e#
Modern research on creativity was born in America on her motivation is pragmatic one, namely the lack of personalities " creative ". The explosion was triggered studies in the field of Guilford 's speech at the meeting of the American Psychological Association in 1950. This speech occur in the same year in an article that warned neglect this problem in scientific research. Guilford posted a three-dimensional model of the structure of intellect which opens early emancipation creativity from under oppressive intelligence. In his model, Guilford distinguish between convergent thinking and divergent thinking. Convergent thinking, confronted with a problem, always seek to deduct the fair way to solve them and also to obtain the unique solution : this is the kind of thought checked using conventional tests of intelligence. Divergent thinking rather seek more opportunities for settlement and this method brand new usage given state of knowledge. Guilford revealed three groups of factors involved in creation : mobility, flexibility and elaboration.
In the 1980s , creativity becomes a favorite theme applied psychology studies. A proof of the importance given to this area in the social context of those years is organizing exhibitions dedicated to creativity. This exhibition marks the time of revival of experimental studies in the psychology of creativity and the emergence of a new model and a new methodology, namely the type cognitivist.
Lately studies on creativity have expanded the reference. Research revealed relationship between creative thinking and critical thinking and the role of variables such as personal style. Moreover the question of creative potential (which has varying degrees each person) and the importance of stimulation and its development.
Creativity is a specifically human phenomenon. Most experts agree that creative potential is present in each individual, it is possible to transform it from virtuality to reality (active under the influence of an environment favorable) that stimulate and develop their creative potential. On this idea, saying that P.P. Neveanu human potential and therefore the creative is not a given size permanently. It can be stimulated by a complex socio-educational approach and organized, including simultaneous activation phenomena, training, cultivation and development through creative virtues update by passing them through effective assertion of possible real.
We must not forget the distinction between creative potential (the potential latent ) and creativity (the actual act), and the distinction made by Aristotle. Otherwise we could draw hasty conclusion that as long as the premise of the original product creativity is only the privilege of adults, children and even adolescents do not possess creative potential. In fact, he still performs acts of originality, but it does mean that it has the potential. In addition, it was found that there is a specific creative potential by age, it should not be considered the child's potential by adult achievements.#p#分頁標題#e#
Complexity creativity requires the participation of a large number of factors, different in nature. May be noted, however, two types of factors:
Objective factors (represented by economic and social conditions necessary for cultural climate) ;
Subjective factors (represented by intellectuals factors, skills, attitudes, motivation and willpower ).
Factors considered indispensable in the creative process are: flexibility, fluidity and originality.
Fluidity is the richness, ease and rapidity of associations between images and ideas flow verbal fluency, rich ideation. J. Guilford fluidity distinguishes three types : verbal, ideational and expression. It considers that it is important so as quality of ideas speed.
Flexibility is the effective restructuring of walking thinking in relation to new situations, the ability to easily operate transfer (perceptive plan in the figural and the conceptual) orientation and thinking ability in many different directions ( Carter ) . Guilford distinguish three types of flexibility :figural, semantic and symbolic. P.P. Neveanu consider originality with central factor in creation, since as the number of responses is greater, increase the chance of an original response.
Originality defined by rarity and novelty involves interpretation and personal expression of things, common situations . A. Koestler distinguishes ordinary originality by three criteria :a) the level of consciousness that is driven activity, b ) the type of guidance that trusts subject, c ) the nature of the obstacle to be overcome. F. Barron determined following originality : the independence of the reasoning, complex views, nonconformity, rich perceptual systems, high capacity of generalization, self-confidence, authority. Originality makes the product to be characterized by novelty, singularity, freshness, uniqueness.
Another factor influencing creativity is perceptive style, apprehension. This factor cognitive reaction designate how to solve problems.
Creativity, both at individual and group level may be limited by a number of obstacles (blockage). Among them, in his opinion A.Cosmovici (1998 , pg 154 ) the most common are:
Social jams and conformity , mistrust of fantasy, imagination, or exaggerating the value of logical reasoning and so on;
Methodological bottlenecks resulting from the processes of thinking, in this category include :stiffness previous algorithms, functional fixity (using only objects according to their function and rarely recognized for another purpose) and premature criticism.
Emotional blockages such as :fear of failing, of not embarrass us, rushing to accept the first idea promoted ; discourage rapid and premature , etc. .
All these barriers in the way of creative and innovative attitudes event can be avoided when discussing and analyzing problems to be solved is achieved through genuine effective interpersonal and group work through a positive attitude to each group member to common task and through open communication, uncensored opinions. Such an atmosphere is provided especially when, for creativity group is calling and a number of methods and techniques that create relaxation group, less critical condition favoring free association as ideas promoted in the debate.#p#分頁標題#e#
The most effective means for overcoming inertia and psychological barriers in the process of creation is the joint creation of intuitive techniques. The most common methods are intuitive creation: Brainstorming, synectic, Panel Discussion, Philips 66, 6-3-5 method, Delphi method and method Frisco.
Brainstorming, or, brain storming, it is an effective method for generating ideas group being drafted in 1948 by the A. Osborn. It is a creative deliberation with the purpose of generating and aligning a set of ideas that can serve as guidance for solving a problem in question.
Basic principles of brainstorming are:
Postponement of criticism (evaluation) . Osborn believes that imagination should be allowed first to soar up into the sky, then back on the ground with critical thinking ( Osborn, 1971);
The need to develop as many ideas on the principle of transformation of quantity into quality.
In addition to these basic principles must be respected and other rules such as encouraging the enunciation and ideas seemingly bizarre , unusual, but the analysis can be very effective, it stimulates combining and improving ideas, formulation of ideas generated so personal thinking and that of other group members.
Synectics or free association is the method developed by Gordon WI and consists in combining different elements, apparently uncorrelated with the aim of releasing the constraints in the problem formulated, eliminating negative responses, annealing thinking and thinking out the template for the development of original ideas and viable.
6-3-5 method involves six people who initially formulated by 3 ideas each. Figure 5 shows the number of people who worked the first 3 ideas neighbor. The exchange of ideas is done until 3 ideas first pass by each group member. Finally, centralized management ideas and transmitted.
Philips 66 method was developed by Philips and JD is actually a brain storming paticipanÅ£i number is 6, and during the discussion is limited to 6 minutes. There are several groups each consisting of six members, each having a leader who realizes report ideas.
Delphi method was developed by O. Helmer and consists in mutual consultation between the participants. We develop a questionnaire on the topic in question to be sent for completion of specialists. When the responses are collected. Subsequently return the questionnaires for completion this time accompanied by unarticulated responses of the other participants. Phasing ideas that deviate from the average, the circuit ending once the stabilizing responses.
Frisco method aims to discover, to solve difficult problems, complex ways of solving both simple and effective. Involves the formation of two teams. Investigation team, consisting of 12 to 15 persons examined problem solving and re-imagines the classic methods, analyzes them critically and emphasizes basic difficulties. Actual creative team consisting of 5-6 experts, receiving checklist first team, trying to find solutions to enrich new or even existing ones.#p#分頁標題#e#
Lately, experts have focused on developing a program to promote the work of new ways of learning and thinking styles designed to contribute to the foundation for effective learning, sustainable and constructive. It's about promoting methods of developing students' critical thinking designed to help them, through the confrontation of ideas through collaboration and cooperation to find appropriate solutions to resolve data issues. This educational program was initiated by Jeannie Steele and Kurtis Meredith in 1995 and today, through the Foundation Open Society based in New York, he is promoted in many countries of the world. In our country, one of the teachers trainers on effective learning strategies and promoting creative thinking in working with pupils and students, Ion. Dumitru, he published "The development of critical thinking and effective learning " ( West Publishing House, Timisoara, 2000) we present, in summary, the main features of these methods. Firstly it should be noted that, in terms of this concept, critical thinking is not to have a negative position, unrealistic, inefficient but rather critical thinking is a way to address and solve problems constructively, with the purpose of grounding and foundation opinions , rational argumentation their acceptance of their knowledge. It involves : formulation of each pupil / student of his own mind, personal, original possibly related to an issue responsible debate ideas and advanced solutions for each individual individually or as a result of group work, manifesting a high degree of flexibility, tolerance and respect for the ideas of others and thus acceptance of diversity of opinions and ideas and asking questions like "what if?", " what would happen when? "etc. to encourage exploration of phenomena from multiple perspectives, even when some of them are only possible or probable etc .
These features of critical thinking and methods used for its development a very close group creativity peculiarities and methods used for its stimulation. Thus, the main methods of developing critical thinking include:
a) "Think / Pair / Communicate " . Based on a question from the teacher, students develop their answers individually, then in pairs to communicate to each other the answers, to listen and try to finally reach a consensus or a new response, improved following discussions;
b) the cube method. Helps students to study a theme, a concept from different perspectives , it involves using a cube (real or imagined ) that has different instructions written on each side of it, as follows: Describe, Compare, Associate, Analyze, Apply, Argues. The teacher asks students to write about a particular concept or a theme through all six sides of the cube. It is preferable to follow the order presented because it leads students gradually to complex thinking.
c) Technique "cluster". It is a technique of teaching and learning that encourages students to think freely and openly, to highlight the various connections between ideas or to build new associations between them. Technology "cluster" may be used individually, but used group enables each student to become acquainted with the ideas of others, links and associations between them made by his colleagues.#p#分頁標題#e#
d) joint investigation and discussion network. It is a learning technique based on group work, activity guided by one or more questions asked by the teacher, admitting different answers, the result of choices based on arguments. This method involves: reading by students individually, text that contains ideas likely different interpretations, grouping students into pairs and their collaboration to answer one or more questions asked by the teacher to the whole class setting a "discussion networks" between the advocates of a position to produce the necessary arguments and counter counter-arguments supporting it.
In work -based training group investigation and discussion network, several requirements must be met: encouraging participation of all group members in discussions to achieve joint investigation and summarizing the arguments of the group with the agreement of all participants, focusing on the “dismantling" adverse position and arguments not "personal attack".
Such a method of training helps the students acquire some skills and abilities related to: receptivity to arguments offered in support of their beliefs, the ability to make assumptions about the beliefs and the beliefs of others, the ability of everyone to express open and disagreement in a problem free, creative ability as evidenced by the construction of original cognitive approaches, but also strongly motivated etc.
This brief overview of some of the methods and techniques for developing creative thinking by teachers in the activities with groups of pupils/students is able to provide just one example of their concern for creating adequate conditions to achieve effective learning, and to enhance their creative and innovative capacity. Communication is the tool by which the teacher stimulates the creativity of pupils/students and also the way they externalize their creative potential. Creation itself is the result of symbiosis of communication between teacher and student. Therefore the act of learning focus should be not on the reproduction of information transmitted, but the creation of new ideas that reflect each student's personal touch.
Therefore, obedience school groups and generally any grouping of scientific research conducted from the perspective of the psychology of new acquisitions can provide teachers and other professionals effective ways of optimizing the activity. These methods and techniques of research in psycho-sociology of human groups are meant to decipher various ways of investigating social groups, structures and processes that arise within it.